Stakeholders that influence physical activity behaviours in school (and beyond) are: school leaders, teachers and other school staff, children/young people, parents/guardians, and wider stakeholders (e.g. active school coordinators, public health specialists, local organisations and clubs).

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The relevant policy and key performance indicators linked to to this section are:

  • KPI 2 - Profile of PE and Sport is raised across the school as a tool for whole school improvement
  • KPI 3 - Increased confidence, knowledge and skills of ALL staff in teaching PE and Sport
  • SS2. All children and young people have the opportunity to realise developmental, character-building experiences through sport, competition and active pursuits.


School Leaders

This section considers schools leaders' capability, opportunity and motivation to lead on and promote physical activity across the school.


Teachers and other school staff

This section considers teachers and other school staff's capability, opportunity and motivation to promote and deliver physical activity across the school day.


Children and young people

This section considers children's capability, opportunity and motivation to influence physical activity for themselves and others across the school day.


Parents and guardians

This section considers parents' and guardians' capability, opportunity and motivation to support physical activity provision in school and provide varied physical activity opportunities outside of school.


Wider stakeholders

This section considers wider stakeholders' capability, opportunity and motivation to support physical activity provision in school and provide varied physical activity opportunities outside of school.

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Combined, the environment and key stakeholders determine the implementation of physical activity across seven opportunities. The opportunities are determined by what the school can control (O1-4) and opportunities that the school can influence (O5-7). The opportunities with the greatest potential impact on whole-day physical activity reside closest to the framework midline.


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School leaders (principal, wider senior leadership team and governors) are responsible for leading the development of the policy and vision statements and managing associated resources. Teachers and wider school staff are central to creating positive social and physical environments, alongside delivering initiatives within the seven opportunities. Other school staff include playground supervisors or teaching assistants, both of whom can play an important role in whole-school physical activity provision. Children and young people may form pupil councils or lead opportunities for physical activity (e.g. playground leaders). Parents/ guardians play a significant role in supporting children to engage in extracurricular activities and may also form parent associations. Wider stakeholders may include; active school coordinators, active partner school specialists or external private, charity or voluntary sector organisations who deliver initiatives within the seven opportunities, or, support schools with systems-level change. All stakeholders are essential to creating and sustaining a whole-school physical activity approach.

The social environment reflects the degree to which the stakeholders engage and support each other to provide physical activity. For example, teachers who implement physically active learning within supportive school social environments experience fewer implementation barriers.  

The framework uses the COM-B (‘capability’, ‘opportunity’, ‘motivation’ and ‘behaviour’) model to explore how schools influence all of the stakeholders to change physical activity behaviour outcomes for children. 

A stakeholder’s Capability is influenced by:

  1. Physical - do they know how to?  How hard/easy do they find it?
  2. Psychological - do you think they might decide to do or not to do… why? Do they think they will be able to do it? (perceived competence)

A stakeholder’s Opportunity is influenced by:

  1. Physical environment - do they have resources they need to deliver?  How will they make time to deliver?
  2. Social - what do their peers think about prioritising PA?  Do they know who has done this successfully?

A stakeholder’s Motivation is influenced by:

  1. Identity - How compatible is this with their professional values and responsibilities?
  2. Beliefs - How confident are they?  What do they think will happen if they do it/don’t do it?
  3. Emotion - when they think about PA what feelings come up?
  4. Goals - how much do they want to incorporate PA?  Does it align or conflict with other things they want to do?